In our modern dietary landscape, dominated by processed foods and refined carbohydrates, inadequate intake of dietary fiber has emerged as a significant nutritional concern with profound implications for both physical health and mental well-being(1). This article explores the complex interplay between dietary fiber intake and mental health, elucidating how a fiber-rich diet can support a healthier gut microbiome and impact biochemical pathways crucial for optimal brain function.

Nutritional Challenges and Mental Health Impacts

According to UK dietary guidelines, adults are recommended to consume at least 30 grams of dietary fiber per day to support overall health, including digestive function and metabolic regulation (2). However, the reality is that a significant proportion of the population falls far below these recommended intake levels(3)
Recent surveys and studies have highlighted the disparity between recommended fibre intake and actual consumption patterns in the UK. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) conducted by Public Health England revealed that most adults consume an average of only 18 grams of fiber per day, significantly below the recommended daily intake of 30grams(3). This discrepancy underscores the need for targeted dietary interventions and public health campaigns to raise awareness about the importance of fibre-rich diets and facilitate behaviour change at the population level.

The contemporary diet, characterized by high consumption of processed foods low in fibre, is associated with various nutritional deficiencies and health issues(4). Insufficient dietary fiber intake not only compromises digestive health but also contributes to the development of chronic diseases like heart disease and diabetes(5), conditions closely linked to mental health disorders(6). Of particular concern is the role of chronic inflammation, triggered by low fiber intake, in the pathophysiology of conditions such as depression and anxiety.

Additionally, the gut microbiota—an intricate community of microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract—plays a pivotal role in regulating immune responses and producing neurotransmitters that influence mood and behavior(7) Imbalances in gut microbiota composition, exacerbated by inadequate fiber intake, have been linked to mental health disorders, as evidenced by recent research highlighting the profound impact of dietary fiber on microbiome diversity and functionality(6).

Insights from Research: Dietary Fiber and Mental Well-being

The Iowa Women’s Health Study revealed a positive correlation between dietary fiber intake and mental health quality of life(8). This underscores the potential of fibre-rich diets in promoting overall well-being, emphasizing the importance of dietary interventions to optimize fiber intake for improved mental health outcomes.

Similarly, scientists discovered there are acute effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on subjective well-being, mood, and cognitive performance ((9). These findings demonstrated statistically significant improvements in mood and cognitive function following prebiotic fiber supplementation, suggesting promising avenues for dietary interventions targeting mental health.

While the potential benefits of dietary fiber on mental health are widely acknowledged, some studies have yielded mixed findings regarding its direct impact on mental well-being(10) Surprisingly, the study found differing effects based on fiber sources, with no clear correlation observed between overall dietary fiber intake and improved mental health outcomes.

Similarly, a latent class analysis study of the American population revealed (4)complex relationships between dietary factors and mental health, suggesting that dietary fiber alone may not be a decisive factor in mitigating depressive symptoms.

While dietary fibre plays a crucial role in promoting overall health, including digestive function and metabolic regulation, its direct impact on mental well-being may be subject to variability across different populations. The inclusion of diverse dietary components and a holistic approach to dietary recommendations are essential for fostering optimal mental health outcomes. Within the following section further insight shows how specific types of fibre uniquely support physiological processes in the aim of improved mental health.

Types of Dietary Fiber and Their Mental Health Benefits

  1. Soluble Fiber:

Found in oats, barley, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and seeds, soluble fiber undergoes fermentation by beneficial gut bacteria, yielding short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) like butyrate. SCFAs can cross the blood-brain barrier, exerting anti-inflammatory effects and modulating neurotransmitter activity, which are crucial for maintaining optimal brain function and mental well-being.

  1. Insoluble Fiber:

Commonly present in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits, insoluble fiber promotes regular bowel movements and supports gut health. By aiding in blood sugar regulation, insoluble fiber contributes to sustained energy levels and mood stability.

  1. Prebiotic Fiber:

Certain fibers act as prebiotics, fueling the growth of beneficial gut bacteria that produce neurotransmitters like serotonin—a key determinant of mood and emotional balance.

  1. Resistant Starch:

Found in undercooked potatoes and green bananas, resistant starch serves as a substrate for gut bacteria fermentation, generating SCFAs with potential neuroprotective effects.

Clinical Implications and Future Directions

The therapeutic potential of dietary fiber in mitigating mental health disorders is gaining recognition in clinical settings. Studies associating fibre intake and alcohol use disorder (11) demonstrated the feasibility of restoring adequate dietary fiber intake resulted in favorable alterations in gut microbiota composition and sociability among alcoholic patients —a population vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies and psychological disturbances.
Furthermore, dietary fiber deficiency has been identified as a component of malnutrition associated with psychological alterations (Amadieu et al., 2021) (12), highlighting the importance of addressing nutritional imbalances to optimize mental health outcomes.


In summary, dietary fiber plays a pivotal role in mental health by influencing gut microbiota composition, inflammatory pathways, and neurotransmitter production. Embracing a fiber-rich diet that incorporates diverse sources of soluble, insoluble, prebiotic, and resistant starch fibers can enhance mental well-being and resilience against mental health disorders. Moving forward, integrated dietary interventions targeting fiber intake hold promise for optimizing mental health outcomes and promoting holistic approaches to mental health care.

References: Using Mendeley Citation: Vancouver style

  1. Kim CS, Byeon S, Shin DM. Sources of dietary fiber are differently associated with prevalence of depression. Nutrients. 2020 Sep 1;12(9):1–14.
  2. NHS. Eat well. 2021.
  3. Office for Health Improvement and Disparities. 2023. National Diet and Nutrition Survey.
  4. Owczarek M, Jurek J, Nolan E, Shevlin M. Nutrient deficiency profiles and depression: A latent class analysis study of American population. J Affect Disord. 2022 Nov;317:339–46.
  5. Threapleton DE, Greenwood DC, Evans CEL, Cleghorn CL, Nykjaer C, Woodhead C, et al. Dietary fibre intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 Dec 19;347(dec19 2):f6879–f6879.
  6. Saghafian F, Sharif N, Saneei P, Keshteli AH, Hosseinzadeh-Attar MJ, Afshar H, et al. Consumption of Dietary Fiber in Relation to Psychological Disorders in Adults. Front Psychiatry. 2021 Jun 24;12.
  7. Młynarska E, Gadzinowska J, Tokarek J, Forycka J, Szuman A, Franczyk B, et al. The Role of the Microbiome-Brain-Gut Axis in the Pathogenesis of Depressive Disorder. Nutrients. 2022 May 4;14(9):1921.
  8. Ramin S, Mysz MA, Meyer K, Capistrant B, Lazovich D, Prizment A. A prospective analysis of dietary fiber intake and mental health quality of life in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Maturitas. 2020 Jan;131:1–7.
  9. Smith A, Sutherland D, Hewlett P. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance. Nutrients. 2015 Oct 28;7(11):8887–96.
  10. Kim CS, Byeon S, Shin DM. Sources of Dietary Fiber Are Differently Associated with Prevalence of Depression. Nutrients. 2020 Sep 14;12(9):2813.
  11. Amadieu C, Coste V, Neyrinck AM, Thijssen V, Leyrolle Q, Bindels LB, et al. Restoring an adequate dietary fiber intake by inulin supplementation: a pilot study showing an impact on gut microbiota and sociability in alcohol use disorder patients. Gut Microbes. 2022 Dec 31;14(1).
  12. Amadieu C, Leclercq S, Coste V, Thijssen V, Neyrinck AM, Bindels LB, et al. Dietary fiber deficiency as a component of malnutrition associated with psychological alterations in alcohol use disorder. Clinical Nutrition. 2021 May;40(5):2673–82.

In today’s fast-paced world, stress has become an almost ubiquitous part of daily life. Whether it’s work-related pressures, financial worries, or personal challenges, stress affects everyone to varying degrees. While stress is often viewed as a mental health issue, it has profound effects on physical health as well, particularly on the cardiovascular system. This article explores the impact of stress on the heart and blood vessels, shedding light on the mechanisms involved and offering practical advice for managing stress to protect cardiovascular health.

Understanding Stress

Stress is the body’s response to any demand or challenge that disrupts its equilibrium. It can be categorized into two main types: acute and chronic. Acute stress is short-term and can be triggered by specific events, such as a tight deadline at work or a sudden argument. Chronic stress, on the other hand, persists over a longer period and can stem from ongoing situations like financial troubles or long-term caregiving responsibilities.

The Cardiovascular System Explained

The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, comprises the heart and an extensive network of blood vessels. Its primary function is to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs while removing waste products. The heart, a muscular organ, pumps blood through arteries, veins, and capillaries, ensuring the body’s cells receive the sustenance they need to function properly. How Stress Affects the Cardiovascular System When faced with stress, the body triggers the fight-or-flight response, a survival mechanism that prepares it to either confront or flee from a threat. This response involves the release of stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol. While these hormones are beneficial in short bursts, chronic exposure to them can lead to detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system.

  1. Immediate Physiological Responses: • Increased Heart Rate: Stress hormones cause the heart to beat faster, increasing blood flow to essential muscles. • Elevated Blood Pressure: Blood vessels constrict, raising blood pressure to enhance oxygen delivery. 2. Chronic Stress Effects: • Hypertension: Persistent high blood pressure damages blood vessels and the heart, increasing the risk of heart disease. • Atherosclerosis: Stress contributes to the buildup of plaque in arteries, narrowing them and potentially leading to heart attacks or strokes. • Inflammation: Chronic stress promotes inflammation, a key player in the development of cardiovascular diseases.
  2. Unhealthy Behaviors: . Dietary Choices: Stress often leads to unhealthy eating habits, such as consuming fatty and sugary foods, which can contribute to obesity and high cholesterol levels. • Substance Use: Increased smoking and alcohol consumption are common stress-related behaviors. Both smoking and excessive alcohol intake have direct negative effects on cardiovascular health, including increasing blood pressure and contributing to the development of heart disease. Evidence from Research Numerous studies have established a clear link between stress and cardiovascular health. For example, research published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology found that chronic stress significantly increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

Another study in Circulation highlighted that individuals with high levels of job stress are more likely to develop hypertension and other heart-related issues. Additionally, studies have shown that stress-induced unhealthy behaviors, like poor diet and substance use, further exacerbate the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Symptoms and Warning Signs

Common cardiovascular symptoms related to stress include chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness. It’s crucial to recognize these signs and seek medical help promptly. Early intervention can prevent more severe cardiovascular events and improve overall health outcomes.

Managing Stress for Better Heart Health Effective stress management is essential for maintaining cardiovascular health. Here are some practical tips: • Exercise: Regular physical activity helps reduce stress hormones and improves heart function. • Relaxation Techniques: Practices such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, and yoga can lower stress levels. • Healthy Diet: Eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains supports heart health. • Sleep: Prioritizing sleep aids in stress reduction and heart health. • Social Support: Connecting with friends and family provides emotional support and reduces stress. • Avoiding Unhealthy Behaviors: Steering clear of smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and unhealthy eating habits can significantly improve cardiovascular health. Regular medical check-ups are also vital. They allow for early detection of potential cardiovascular issues and help monitor the effectiveness of stress management strategies.


Stress, while a natural part of life, poses significant risks to the cardiovascular system when left unmanaged. By understanding how stress affects heart health and adopting effective stress management techniques, individuals can protect their cardiovascular system and enhance their overall well-being. Prioritizing mental and physical health through lifestyle changes and regular medical care is crucial in mitigating the adverse effects of stress on the heart.

Author Biography

Dr. Mukonkole Bernard Ngoie is a Doctor in Medicine with a Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery. Working in emergency, critical care, and general medicine since 2011, Dr. Ngoie has a passion for health and wellness. He enjoys running, which helps him manage his stress and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Dr. Ngoie is dedicated to educating others about the importance of maintaining both mental and physical health to prevent cardiovascular diseases.


“Chronic stress and cardiovascular diseasereview of mechanisms and interventions “ Journal of the American college of cardiology “Stress can increase your risk for heart disease “ University of Rochester Medical center

In the holistic health and wellness landscape, there exists a roadmap to vibrant living, illuminated by the six Foundational Principles. These principles (which were first introduced to me by one of my mentors, Paul Chek), when embraced and integrated into daily life, pave the way towards optimal health and vitality. Let’s delve deeper into these principles and explore how they can be applied practically to empower individuals on their journey to holistic wellness.

Understanding the 6 Foundational Principles

Before we explore their practical application, let’s revisit the essence of these foundational principles:

  1. Thoughts: Harnessing the power of the mind to shape our reality and influence our health.
  2. Breathing: Understanding the significance of proper breathing techniques in nurturing vitality and well-being.
  3. Hydration: Acknowledging the vital role of water in sustaining optimal bodily functions and overall health.
  4. Nutrition: Fueling the body with nutrient-dense, whole foods tailored to individual needs.
  5. Movement: Embracing functional movement patterns to enhance strength, flexibility, and vitality.
  6. Sleep: Prioritizing restorative sleep for physical, mental, and emotional rejuvenation.

The Significance of Each Principle

1. Thoughts:

Our thoughts have a profound impact on our health and well-being. Positive thinking, visualization, and mindfulness practices can influence physiological processes, immune function, and stress response. By cultivating a mindset of optimism and resilience, we can create a fertile ground for holistic wellness to flourish.

2. Breathing:

Breath is the bridge between the mind and body, and proper breathing patterns are essential for optimal health. Techniques such as diaphragmatic breathing and alternate nostril breathing can promote relaxation, reduce stress, and improve oxygenation. By embracing conscious breathing, we can tap into our body’s innate capacity for healing and restoration.

3. Hydration:

Water is the elixir of life, playing a crucial role in maintaining cellular function, nutrient transport, and detoxification. Adequate hydration supports optimal bodily functions, including digestion, metabolism, and temperature regulation. By prioritizing clean, quality water intake, we can nourish our bodies at the most fundamental level.

4. Nutrition:

Nutrition forms the cornerstone of holistic health, providing the essential building blocks for cellular repair, hormonal balance, and energy production. Embracing a whole-foods-based diet rich in organic fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, healthy fats, and whole grains nourishes the body from within, supporting vibrant health and vitality.

5. Movement:

The human body is designed for movement, and functional movement patterns are essential for strength, flexibility, and overall well-being. Whether through yoga, strength training, or outdoor activities, regular physical activity enhances circulation, supports joint health, and boosts mood. By prioritizing mindful movement, we honor our body’s innate intelligence and promote longevity.

6. Sleep:

Quality sleep is non-negotiable for optimal health and well-being. During sleep, the body undergoes crucial processes of repair, hormone regulation, and cognitive consolidation. Prioritizing sleep hygiene practices, such as establishing a consistent sleep schedule and creating a conducive sleep environment, ensures that we wake up refreshed, rejuvenated, and ready to tackle the day ahead.

Applying the Principles in Practice: A Deeper Dive

Now, let’s explore practical strategies for incorporating these principles into our daily lives:

  • Thoughts: Start each day with a gratitude practice or positive affirmation to set the tone for a mindset of abundance and resilience. Incorporate mindfulness techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, to cultivate present-moment awareness and reduce stress.
  • Breathing: Dedicate a few minutes each day to practice deep breathing exercises, focusing on expanding the diaphragm and lengthening the breath. Incorporate breathwork into daily activities, such as taking mindful breaths while commuting or practising relaxation techniques before bedtime.
  • Hydration: Carry a reusable water bottle with you throughout the day as a reminder to stay hydrated. Infuse your water with fresh fruits or herbs for added flavour and nutrients. Monitor your hydration status by paying attention to thirst cues and the colour of your urine.
  • Nutrition: Prioritize whole, nutrient-dense foods in your diet, including plenty of colourful fruits and vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Experiment with different cooking methods and recipes to keep meals exciting and flavorful. Listen to your body’s hunger and satiety cues, eating mindfully and with gratitude.
  • Movement: Find joy in movement by exploring activities that resonate with you, whether it’s hiking in nature, dancing to your favourite music, or practising yoga in your living room. Incorporate movement breaks throughout the day to counteract sedentary behaviour and promote circulation. Listen to your body and honour its needs, modifying activities as necessary to prevent injury and promote longevity.
  • Sleep: Create a bedtime routine that signals to your body that it’s time to wind down, such as dimming the lights, practicing relaxation techniques, or taking a warm bath. Minimize exposure to screens and stimulating activities before bedtime, opting instead for calming activities such as reading or gentle stretching. Invest in a comfortable mattress and bedding to create a sleep sanctuary that promotes restful slumber.

Conclusion: Nurturing Holistic Wellness Through Practical Application

Incorporating the 6 Foundational Principles into our daily lives is not merely a matter of adopting new habits, but rather a journey of self-discovery and self-care. By embracing these principles with intention and mindfulness, we cultivate a holistic approach to wellness that nourishes body, mind, and spirit.

As we navigate the complexities of modern life, let us remember that the path to holistic wellness is not one-size-fits-all. It is a deeply personal journey guided by intuition, self-awareness, and a commitment to self-care. By applying these principles in practice, we unlock the transformative power of holistic health and embark on a journey towards greater vitality, resilience, and fulfillment.

Fibromyalgia, a chronic condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and tenderness, has puzzled researchers and clinicians for decades. While its exact cause remains elusive, recent discussions have brought attention to the potential role of dietary factors. Today, we delve into an intriguing theory: the curious connection between consuming poultry with baking powder, sipping on wine, and the mysterious appearance of fibromyalgia. Let’s unravel this culinary conspiracy and explore the role of tartaric acid in this context.

Understanding the Tartaric Trio
Imagine a typical culinary scenario: indulging in a delicious roast chicken prepared with baking powder and enjoying it with a glass of wine. At first glance, these choices seem innocent and even delightful. However, they might share a common and unexpected link—tartaric acid.

Tartaric Acid: The Silent Partner
Tartaric acid, a naturally occurring organic acid, is found in various foods and beverages. Notably, it is present in wine and is also a component of some baking powders. Tartaric acid is often used in baking to help dough rise and maintain its structure. But how does this relate to fibromyalgia?

The Tartaric Acid Connection to Fibromyalgia
Emerging studies suggest that in certain individuals, tartaric acid may play a role in the development or exacerbation of fibromyalgia symptoms. Research indicates that tartaric acid can act as a muscle toxin in individuals with specific metabolic dysfunctions, potentially leading to muscle pain and fatigue, hallmarks of fibromyalgia.

Exploring the Scientific Evidence

  1. Muscle Toxin Hypothesis: Tartaric acid, when not properly metabolized, may accumulate in the muscles, acting as a toxin. This accumulation could disrupt normal muscle function and lead to pain and fatigue. According to research by Bengtsson and Henriksson (1989), muscle abnormalities, including the presence of muscle toxins, have been observed in fibromyalgia patients, suggesting a possible link between dietary components like tartaric acid and muscle pain.
  2. Serotonin Pathway and Dietary Influences: Some studies have indicated that fibromyalgia patients may have impairments in the serotonin pathway, which plays a crucial role in pain perception and mood regulation. Juhl (1998) discusses the relationship between serotonin levels and fibromyalgia symptoms, suggesting that dietary factors influencing serotonin metabolism could exacerbate symptoms. Tartaric acid, as a dietary component, might indirectly affect serotonin levels and contribute to the overall symptomatology of fibromyalgia.

Practical Considerations and Dietary Adjustments
While this theory does not suggest completely avoiding poultry, baking powder, or wine, it does propose a thoughtful approach for those exploring potential dietary influences on their fibromyalgia symptoms.

  1. Poultry and Baking Powder: Consider using baking soda instead of baking powder when preparing poultry. Baking soda lacks tartaric acid and can serve as an effective leavening agent.
  2. Wine Choices: Opt for tartaric acid-free wine varieties if you suspect that tartaric acid might be affecting your symptoms. Some wines, particularly certain reds, have higher levels of tartaric acid.
  3. Dietary Monitoring: Keep a food diary to track your fibromyalgia symptoms in relation to your diet. This can help identify any patterns or triggers related to tartaric acid consumption.

Potential Benefits of Dietary Adjustments
By making these dietary adjustments, individuals with fibromyalgia might experience a reduction in symptoms. While scientific research on this topic is still in its early stages, anecdotal evidence suggests that some people have found relief by modifying their intake of tartaric acid-containing foods.
• Reduced Muscle Pain: Lowering tartaric acid intake might reduce muscle pain and tenderness, common symptoms of fibromyalgia.
• Improved Energy Levels: Addressing metabolic dysfunctions by avoiding specific triggers could lead to better energy production and reduced fatigue.
• Enhanced Overall Well-being: Making informed dietary choices may contribute to overall health improvements and a better quality of life for those with fibromyalgia.

While the tartaric trio theory is an emerging and somewhat unconventional hypothesis, it underscores the importance of exploring all potential factors that could influence fibromyalgia. As researchers continue to investigate the complex interplay between diet and chronic conditions like fibromyalgia, staying informed and open to new ideas is crucial.
For those in the tartaric trio investigation squad, experimenting with dietary adjustments could be a worthwhile endeavor. And who knows? Maybe adding some funky dance moves to your cooking routine could also bring a smile to your face and some relief to your symptoms.
Remember, it’s always essential to consult with a healthcare professional before making significant changes to your diet, especially if you have underlying health conditions.


  1. Bengtsson, A., & Kg, H. (1989). The muscle in fibromyalgia–a review of Swedish studies.. The Journal of rheumatology. Supplement, 19, 144-9.
  2. Juhl, J. (1998). Fibromyalgia and the serotonin pathway.. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic, 3 5, 367-75.

Heavy metal toxicity poses a significant health risk due to exposure to substances such as lead, mercury, and arsenic. Chelation therapy serves as a method to rid the body of these harmful metals. In this discussion, we delve into the disparities between Emeramide and the more traditional chelators, DMPS (Dimercaptopropane sulfonate), and DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid). While Emeramide emerges as a newer option in chelation therapy, how does it fare against DMPS and DMSA? This article aims to elucidate these discrepancies and assist in making an informed decision.

Understanding Emeramide
Emeramide marks a relatively recent addition to the realm of chelation therapy. It boasts distinctive attributes setting it apart from conventional chelators like DMPS and DMSA. A notable advantage of Emeramide lies in its capacity to render heavy metals inert, rather than simply binding to them. This mechanism can reduce the damage caused by free radicals, a common concern in heavy metal toxicity (Kosnett, 2010).

Mechanism of Action
Emeramide operates by neutralizing heavy metals, thereby impeding their contribution to oxidative stress and cellular damage. This is pivotal since oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation, cellular damage, and an array of health complications. By rendering metals inert, Emeramide potentially offers a safer alternative with fewer side effects linked to oxidative stress (Rooney, 2007).

DMPS and DMSA: Established Chelators
DMPS and DMSA stand as well-established chelators, extensively researched and utilized over many years. While effective in binding and eliminating heavy metals from the body, they present specific applications and potential side effects.

DMPS (Dimercaptopropane sulfonate)
DMPS demonstrates efficacy in chelating various heavy metals, including mercury and arsenic. It dissolves in water and can be administered orally or intravenously. However, it may induce gastrointestinal discomfort and necessitates meticulous dosing to avert potential side effects (Chisolm, 2000).

DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid)
DMSA garners FDA approval for treating lead poisoning and boasts a robust safety profile. It is particularly effective at binding to lead, mercury, and arsenic, facilitating their excretion via urine. Nonetheless, DMSA can trigger gastrointestinal issues, underscoring the importance of its supervised usage for adverse effect monitoring (Blaurock-Busch & Busch, 2014).

Comparing Efficacy and Safety

• Emeramide: Its innovative mechanism of neutralizing heavy metals, as opposed to mere binding, potentially reduces the risk of oxidative stress, rendering it a possibly safer long-term choice (Kosnett, 2013).
• DMPS and DMSA: Both exhibit high effectiveness in chelating heavy metals, with DMSA especially noted for its prowess in lead detoxification (Bjorklund et al., 2017).

• Emeramide: Being a newer agent, the available long-term safety data is limited. Nonetheless, its unique mechanism suggests fewer side effects stemming from oxidative stress (Kosnett, 2010).
• DMPS and DMSA: While generally safe with appropriate usage, both may induce gastrointestinal side effects, necessitating careful dosing (Chisolm, 2000; Blaurock-Busch & Busch, 2014).

Making the Right Choice
When contemplating between Emeramide, DMPS, or DMSA, consulting a healthcare professional is imperative. Various factors such as health status, specific metal toxicity, and personal preference significantly influence the decision-making process.
• Health Status: Individuals with pre-existing conditions may necessitate a chelator tailored to their health requirements.
• Specific Metal Toxicity: The type of metal toxicity (e.g., lead, mercury, arsenic) plays a pivotal role in selecting the appropriate chelating agent.
• Personal Preference: While some may lean towards a newer agent like Emeramide for its potential reduced side effects, others may opt for the established efficacy of DMPS or DMSA.

Emeramide emerges as a promising contender in heavy metal chelation therapy. Nevertheless, choosing between Emeramide, DMPS, and DMSA warrants consultation with a healthcare professional, taking into account all pertinent health factors and specific needs. A comprehensive understanding of the disparities between these chelators can aid individuals in making well-informed decisions regarding their detoxification therapies.


• Kosnett, M. (2013). The Role of Chelation in the Treatment of Arsenic and Mercury Poisoning. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 9, 347 – 354.
• Chisolm, J. (2000). Safety and Efficacy of Meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) in Children with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology, 38, 365 – 375.
• Rooney, J. (2007). The role of thiols, dithiols, nutritional factors and interacting ligands in the toxicology of mercury.. Toxicology, 234 3, 145-56 .
• Kosnett, M. (2010). Chelation for Heavy Metals (Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury): Protective or Perilous?. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 88.
• Blaurock-Busch, E., & Busch, Y. (2014). Comparison of chelating agents DMPS, DMSA and EDTA for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic metal exposure. British journal of medicine and medical research, 4, 1821-1835.
• Bjorklund, G., Mutter, J., & Aaseth, J. (2017). Metal chelators and neurotoxicity: lead, mercury, and arsenic. Archives of Toxicology, 91, 3787-3797.

Candida, a common yeast that resides in our bodies, can sometimes overgrow and cause a variety of health issues. One significant problem associated with Candida overgrowth is its impact on nutrient metabolism, specifically concerning iron and zinc. Understanding how Candida affects the absorption and utilization of these essential minerals is crucial for maintaining optimal health. This blog post explores the relationship between Candida and nutrient metabolism, focusing on iron and zinc, and provides dietary recommendations to mitigate these effects.

Understanding Candida and Its Overgrowth
Candida albicans is the most prevalent species of Candida and is usually harmless in small amounts. It coexists with the other microorganisms in our bodies, forming part of the natural flora. However, when Candida overgrows, it can lead to infections and systemic health problems, particularly affecting nutrient metabolism.

The Impact of Candida on Iron Metabolism
Iron is vital for numerous bodily functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production. When Candida overgrows, it can negatively affect iron metabolism in the following ways:
• Interference with Absorption: Candida can damage the intestinal lining, impairing the absorption of iron from the diet. This damage can lead to iron deficiency anaemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and a compromised immune system.
• Competition for Iron: Candida competes with the host for iron. It sequesters iron for its growth, leaving less available for the body’s needs, which can exacerbate deficiency symptoms.

The Impact of Candida on Zinc Metabolism
Zinc is another essential mineral that plays a crucial role in immune function, wound healing, and DNA synthesis. The disruption of zinc metabolism by Candida overgrowth can result in:
• Decreased Absorption: Similar to iron, Candida can impair the intestinal lining, reducing the absorption of zinc. This impairment can lead to symptoms such as a weakened immune response, skin issues, and slowed wound healing.
• Competition for Nutrients: Candida’s rapid growth requires significant amounts of zinc, depriving the host of this critical nutrient and potentially leading to a deficiency.

Addressing Nutrient Deficiencies
To combat the potential deficiencies of iron and zinc caused by Candida overgrowth, consider incorporating the following dietary strategies:

  1. Organ-Based Meats: Foods like liver are rich in bioavailable iron and zinc. Including these in your diet can help replenish these essential nutrients.
  2. Vegetables: While many vegetables contain iron, it is essential to be aware of their oxalate content. High-oxalate vegetables, such as spinach, can inhibit iron absorption. Opt for low-oxalate vegetables to enhance iron uptake.
  3. Balanced Diet: A varied diet that includes both plant and animal sources of nutrients can help maintain optimal levels of iron and zinc. Ensuring adequate protein intake also supports overall nutrient absorption and utilization.

Practical Tips for Nutrient-Rich Eating
• Iron-rich foods: Incorporate lean red meats, poultry, seafood, beans, and fortified cereals. Consider cooking with cast iron pots to increase iron intake.
• Zinc-rich foods: Include seafood (especially oysters), red meat, poultry, beans, nuts, and whole grains.
• Oxalate Awareness: Be mindful of the oxalate content in vegetables. Low-oxalate options include kale, bok choy, and broccoli, which are better for iron absorption.

Maintaining a balanced diet is crucial for managing nutrient metabolism and preventing deficiencies, especially in the context of Candida overgrowth. By understanding the interplay between Candida and essential minerals like iron and zinc, and by making informed dietary choices, you can support your body’s nutritional health and overall well-being. Always consider consulting with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and treatment options.


  1. Ganz, T. (2013). Systemic iron homeostasis.. Physiological reviews, 93 4, 1721-41 .
  2. Weinberg, E. (2009). Iron availability and infection.. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1790 7, 600-5 .
  3. Brown, A., & Gow, N. (1999). Regulatory networks controlling Candida albicans morphogenesis.. Trends in microbiology, 7 8, 333-8 .
  4. Prasad, A. (2008). Zinc in Human Health: Effect of Zinc on Immune Cells. Molecular Medicine, 14, 353-357.
  5. Noonan, S., & Savage, G. (1999). Oxalate content of foods and its effect on humans.. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 8 1, 64-74 .

In the complex world of cellular health, understanding the roles and interactions of various enzymes and molecules is crucial. One enzyme that has gained significant attention due to its potential to disrupt cellular harmony is CD38. This enzyme, while necessary for certain cellular functions, can become a major troublemaker for our NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) levels, particularly as we age. Let’s delve into the intricacies of CD38, its impact on NAD, and how we can mitigate its negative effects.

What is CD38?
CD38 is an enzyme involved in a variety of cellular processes, including calcium signalling, immune response, and metabolism. It belongs to the ADP-ribosyl cyclase family and plays a significant role in the regulation of intracellular calcium levels and the generation of cyclic ADP-ribose, a messenger molecule involved in calcium signalling. Under normal circumstances, CD38 functions beneficially within these pathways. However, as our cells age or experience stress, CD38 levels can increase, leading to potential disruptions in cellular function.

The Dual Nature of CD38
Initially, CD38 is beneficial, aiding in essential cellular functions. However, this enzyme can become overactive under conditions of cellular stress or ageing. When overactive, CD38 exhibits a voracious appetite for NAD, depleting its levels by breaking it down into smaller molecules. This reduction in NAD disrupts cellular energy production and repair mechanisms, leading to what can be described as metabolic chaos.

The Impact of Excessive CD38 Activity
Excessive activity of CD38 is particularly detrimental because NAD is vital for maintaining cellular health. NAD plays a critical role in various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, DNA repair, and the regulation of circadian rhythms. Low levels of NAD are associated with decreased metabolic function, impaired DNA repair, and increased oxidative stress, all of which are contributing factors to ageing and age-related diseases.
Studies have demonstrated that elevated CD38 activity is linked to a significant decline in NAD levels, exacerbating the ageing process and potentially contributing to metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and other health challenges.

Strategies to Safeguard NAD Levels
Given the importance of maintaining NAD levels for cellular health and longevity, it is crucial to adopt lifestyle habits that can support NAD production and mitigate the impact of CD38. Here are several strategies:

  1. Balanced Diet Rich in NAD Precursors: Incorporating foods that are rich in NAD precursors can help maintain optimal NAD levels. These include fish, nuts, and certain vegetables. For example, salmon, tuna, and sardines are excellent sources of NAD precursors, as are nuts like almonds and vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage.
  2. Regular Exercise: Physical activity has been shown to increase NAD levels and enhance overall cellular health. Regular exercise promotes metabolic function and reduces oxidative stress, contributing to improved NAD production.
  3. Optimizing Stress Management: Chronic stress negatively impacts NAD levels. Adopting stress management techniques such as mindfulness, meditation, and ensuring adequate sleep can help maintain NAD balance and improve overall well-being.
  4. Supplementation: Considering NAD-boosting supplements such as nicotinamide riboside (NR) or nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can be beneficial. These supplements can help increase NAD levels and support cellular health.

Understanding the role of CD38 and its impact on NAD levels is crucial for maintaining cellular health and slowing the ageing process. By adopting a balanced diet, engaging in regular exercise, and managing stress effectively, we can safeguard our NAD levels and promote longevity. Embrace these lifestyle habits to support your cellular health and thrive in harmony.
For more insights and tips on living a healthy, vibrant life, stay tuned to our blog and videos.


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Childhood faecal smearing, a perplexing and distressing behaviour for many parents and caregivers, involves children deliberately spreading their faeces on themselves, objects, or surfaces. This behaviour, although often linked to sensory issues, developmental delays, or psychological distress, might also have a connection with underlying medical conditions such as Candida infection in the bowel. In this article, we will explore the potential association between childhood faecal smearing and Candida infection, shedding light on possible causes and management strategies.

What is Childhood Faecal Smearing?
Childhood faecal smearing, also known as scatolia, is a behaviour observed in some children, particularly those with developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or sensory processing disorder (SPD). This behaviour can be triggered by various factors, including sensory-seeking behaviours, emotional distress, or a way for the child to communicate discomfort.

Candida Infection in the Bowel: An Overview
Candida is a type of yeast that naturally resides in the human gut. Under normal circumstances, the body’s immune system and the microbiome keep Candida levels in check. However, when the balance is disrupted, Candida can overgrow, leading to an infection known as candidiasis. Intestinal candidiasis can cause various symptoms, including digestive issues, fatigue, and behavioural changes.

The Potential Link Between Faecal Smearing and Candida Infection
While the exact causes of childhood faecal smearing are multifaceted and not fully understood, some researchers and healthcare professionals suggest a potential link between this behaviour and underlying Candida infection in the bowel. Here are several reasons why this connection might exist:

  1. Discomfort and Itching: Intestinal candidiasis can cause significant discomfort, including itching and irritation in the anal area. Children who experience this discomfort may engage in faecal smearing as a way to relieve the itchiness or discomfort.
  2. Sensory-Seeking Behavior: Children with sensory processing issues may be more prone to faecal smearing if they experience unusual sensations or discomfort due to Candida overgrowth. The texture and smell of faeces might provide the sensory input that these children seek.
  3. Behavioural Changes: Candida infection can lead to changes in behaviour, including increased irritability and restlessness. These behavioural changes might manifest in actions such as faecal smearing, especially in children who have difficulty communicating their discomfort verbally.

  4. Supporting Evidence
    While direct research linking faecal smearing to Candida infection is limited, several studies provide insights into the broader context:
  5. Candida and Behavioral Issues: A study published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology highlighted the association between Candida overgrowth and behavioural changes in children with ASD, suggesting that managing Candida could potentially improve behavioural symptoms (Finegold, S.M., 2011).
  6. Gut-Brain Axis: Research on the gut-brain axis emphasizes the connection between gut health and behaviour. Dysbiosis, including Candida overgrowth, can influence brain function and behaviour, potentially leading to behaviours like faecal smearing (Mayer, E.A., 2011).
  7. Parental Reports: Anecdotal evidence from parents and caregivers often highlights improvements in faecal smearing behaviour after addressing Candida overgrowth through dietary changes and antifungal treatments.

  8. Management and Treatment Strategies
    If Candida infection is suspected as a contributing factor to faecal smearing, a multifaceted approach can be beneficial:
  9. Medical Evaluation: Consult a healthcare professional to diagnose and treat Candida infection. This may involve antifungal medications, probiotics, and dietary changes.
  10. Behavioral Interventions: Work with a behavioral therapist to develop strategies to address faecal-smearing behaviour, including positive reinforcement and sensory integration therapy.
  11. Dietary Modifications: Implement a diet low in sugar and refined carbohydrates to reduce Candida overgrowth. Incorporate probiotics and antifungal foods such as garlic and coconut oil.
  12. Hygiene Practices: Establish consistent hygiene practices and routines to help the child manage discomfort and reduce the occurrence of faecal smearing.

While childhood faecal smearing is a complex behaviour with various potential causes, considering underlying medical conditions such as Candida infection in the bowel can provide a more comprehensive understanding and effective management strategies. By addressing both the behavioural and medical aspects, caregivers can support their child’s health and well-being more effectively.


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In the pursuit of longevity and vibrant health, one gene stands out as a beacon of hope: SIRT1. This remarkable gene, short for silent information regulator 2 homolog 1, is a key player in the anti-ageing game. Functioning like a guardian of our cells, SIRT1 promotes longevity by regulating various cellular processes. However, SIRT1 doesn’t work alone—it relies on NAD, a crucial energy source, to perform its anti-ageing magic. Let’s delve into the fascinating world of the SIRT1 gene and discover how NAD plays a starring role in the cellular symphony of ageing gracefully.

The Power of SIRT1

SIRT1 is a game changer when it comes to slowing down the ageing process. This gene oversees numerous cellular activities that contribute to longevity. SIRT1 promotes cellular repair, regulates metabolism, and helps maintain genomic stability. By doing so, SIRT1 ensures that our cells function optimally, reducing the wear and tear that accompanies ageing.
SIRT1 functions by deacetylating proteins that contribute to cellular regulation, including histones, transcription factors, and other cellular proteins. This activity helps enhance DNA repair and modulate inflammatory responses, both critical factors in aging and longevity .

NAD: The Star Player

NAD, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a vital coenzyme found in every cell of our body. NAD acts as an energy source, empowering SIRT1 to carry out its functions effectively. When NAD levels are optimal, SIRT1’s activity is enhanced, leading to improved cellular repair and potentially slowing down the ageing clock.
NAD is essential for the function of sirtuins (including SIRT1), which depend on NAD to catalyze their reactions. Studies suggest that boosting NAD levels can provide our cells with a vitality boost from within, promoting longevity and enhancing overall cellular health.

Supporting the SIRT1 and NAD Dynamic Duo

So, how can you support this dynamic duo of SIRT1 and NAD? Here are a few strategies:

  1. NAD-Rich Foods: Incorporate foods that are rich in NAD precursors into your diet. These include fish, nuts, and certain vegetables. Foods like salmon, tuna, and sardines are excellent sources of NAD precursors. Additionally, consuming nuts like almonds and vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage can help maintain NAD levels.
  2. Lifestyle Habits: Adopt lifestyle habits that naturally boost NAD levels. Regular exercise and proper sleep are crucial. Exercise not only increases NAD levels but also promotes overall health. Quality sleep ensures that your body can repair and regenerate efficiently.
  3. Supplements: Consider NAD supplements, such as nicotinamide riboside (NR) or nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). These supplements can help boost NAD levels, supporting SIRT1 activity and promoting anti-ageing benefits. Additionally, emerging research suggests that Deazaflavin, a supplemental precursor, may further enhance NAD production, offering another avenue for maintaining optimal levels.


When your genes are in harmony, the symphony of anti-aging begins. By understanding and supporting the role of SIRT1 and NAD, you can take proactive steps towards slowing down the ageing process and enhancing your vitality. Embrace the power of this dynamic duo and let the symphony of ageing gracefully play on.


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  2. Imai S, Guarente L. NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends in Cell Biology. 2014;24(8):464-471.
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  5. Martens CR, Denman BA, Mazzo MR, et al. Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD+ in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Nature Communications. 2018;9(1):1286.
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As the global COVID-19 vaccination efforts continue to progress, discussions surrounding post-vaccination care are becoming increasingly important. While it’s natural to experience mild side effects after receiving a vaccine, reaching for over-the-counter pain relievers like Tylenol (acetaminophen) may not be the optimal choice for everyone. In fact, Tylenol consumption post-vaccination may not only compromise immune response but also impact crucial antioxidant levels in the body, such as glutathione, leading to potential health consequences. Let’s delve into the science behind post-vaccination care and the implications of Tylenol use.

Understanding Post-Vaccination Symptoms:
Post-vaccination symptoms are a common occurrence, signalling that the body is mounting an immune response to the vaccine. These symptoms, which may include pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and low-grade fever, typically resolve on their own within a few days.

The Role of Pain Relievers:
Many individuals turn to pain relievers like Tylenol to alleviate post-vaccination symptoms. However, recent research suggests that Tylenol use post-vaccination may not be without consequences. Studies published in reputable journals such as the “Journal of Virology” have indicated that acetaminophen and other NSAIDs may dampen the body’s immune response to viral infections, potentially affecting vaccine efficacy.

Glutathione Depletion and Organ Health:
One crucial aspect often overlooked in discussions about Tylenol use is its potential impact on glutathione levels in the body. Glutathione is a powerhouse antioxidant crucial for liver, kidney, and lung health. Consumption of Tylenol can lead to depletion of glutathione, potentially straining these vital organs. Furthermore, glutathione depletion may not stop there—it can also influence the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, potentially impacting neurological health.

The Cerebellum Connection:
The cerebellum plays a crucial role in coordinating movement, balance, and posture. Disruption of Purkinje cell function in the cerebellum due to glutathione depletion can have far-reaching consequences on neurological health. Studies have linked cerebellar dysfunction to various neurological disorders, including ataxia, tremors, and cognitive impairments.

Rethinking Post-Vaccination Care:
Given the potential consequences of Tylenol use post-vaccination, it’s crucial to rethink our approach to symptom management. Instead of immediately reaching for pain relievers, consider alternative strategies such as rest, hydration, and cold compresses. These non-medicated approaches can support the body’s natural healing processes without compromising immune response or antioxidant levels.

As we navigate the complexities of post-vaccination care, it’s essential to prioritize informed decision-making and holistic health. While Tylenol may offer temporary relief from post-vaccination symptoms, its potential impact on immune response and antioxidant levels warrants consideration. By opting for alternative symptom management strategies and supporting the body’s natural healing processes, we can promote optimal health and well-being in the post-vaccination period.

Prescott, J., & Halloran, M. E. (2019). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a treatment for infectious diseases. In Advances in Pharmacology (Vol. 85, pp. 1-31). Academic Press.