Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by the fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbiota, has been recognized for its numerous health benefits, particularly in modulating immune responses and reducing inflammation. One of the pivotal mechanisms by which butyrate exerts its anti-inflammatory effects is through the promotion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) production, a crucial anti-inflammatory cytokine. This increase in IL-10 production subsequently leads to the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The suppression of these cytokines has significant implications for gastrointestinal inflammation, mast cell modulation, and the reduction of histamine release, ultimately contributing to improved gut health and reduced inflammatory responses.

Butyrate and IL-10 Production

IL-10 is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties, playing a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing excessive inflammatory responses. Butyrate has been shown to enhance the production of IL-10 by various immune cells, including macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs) . This upregulation of IL-10 is crucial in creating an anti-inflammatory environment in the gut, helping to protect against inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other forms of gastrointestinal inflammation.

Suppression of IL-4 and IFN-γ

IL-4 and IFN-γ are key cytokines involved in the promotion of inflammatory responses. IL-4 is primarily associated with Th2 immune responses and is known to promote the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th2 cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions and asthma. IFN-γ, on the other hand, is a signature cytokine of Th1 cells and is involved in activating macrophages and promoting inflammation.

Butyrate-induced IL-10 production has been found to suppress the production of IL-4 and IFN-γ, thereby dampening both Th2 and Th1 inflammatory responses . This suppression is beneficial in preventing excessive immune activation and maintaining a balanced immune response, which is crucial for preventing chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactions.

Impact on Gastrointestinal Inflammation

The suppression of IL-4 and IFN-γ by butyrate, mediated through increased IL-10 production, has significant implications for gastrointestinal health. Inflammatory conditions such as IBD are characterized by an imbalance in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, leading to chronic inflammation and tissue damage. By promoting IL-10 and suppressing IL-4 and IFN-γ, butyrate helps to restore this balance, reducing inflammation and promoting healing in the gut .

Modulation of Mast Cells and Granulocytes

Mast cells and other granulocytes, such as eosinophils and basophils, play a central role in allergic reactions and inflammation by releasing histamine and other inflammatory mediators. Excessive histamine release can lead to various inflammatory conditions, including allergies, asthma, and chronic urticaria.

Butyrate’s ability to enhance IL-10 production and suppress IL-4 and IFN-γ extends to the modulation of these cells. IL-10 is known to inhibit mast cell activation and degranulation, reducing the release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory mediators . Furthermore, the suppression of IL-4, which is crucial for the survival and activation of eosinophils, leads to reduced eosinophil numbers and activity, thereby decreasing overall inflammation.

Reduction of Histamine Release and Inflammatory Responses

By reducing the release of histamine through the modulation of mast cells and eosinophils, butyrate helps to mitigate the inflammatory chemoattractant reactions that histamine can cause. Histamine is a potent vasodilator and increases vascular permeability, leading to swelling and redness. It also acts as a chemoattractant for other inflammatory cells, exacerbating the inflammatory response.

The combined effects of butyrate on promoting IL-10, suppressing IL-4 and IFN-γ, and reducing histamine release lead to a substantial decrease in inflammatory responses, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. This results in improved gut health, reduced symptoms of IBD, and a decrease in allergic and asthmatic symptoms .


Butyrate’s role in modulating immune responses through the promotion of IL-10 production and the subsequent suppression of IL-4 and IFN-γ highlights its therapeutic potential in managing gastrointestinal inflammation and allergic conditions. By reducing the activation of mast cells and other granulocytes, butyrate helps to prevent excessive histamine release and the associated inflammatory reactions, contributing to overall improved health and reduced inflammation. These findings underscore the importance of dietary fiber and gut microbiota in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing chronic inflammatory diseases.


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